Total Dissolved Solids
Turbidity is the term given to anything that is suspended in a water supply. It is found in most surface waters, but usually doesn't exist in ground waters except in shallow wells and springs after heavy rains. Turbidity gives the water a cloudy appearance or shows up as dirty sediment. Undissolved materials such as sand, clay, silt or suspended iron contribute to turbidity. Turbidity can cause the staining of sinks and fixtures as well as the discoloring of fabrics. Usually turbidity is measured in NTUs (nephelometric turbidity units). Typical drinking water will have a turbidity level of 0 to 1 NTU. Turbidity can also be measured in ppm (parts per million) and it's size is measured in microns. Turbidity can be particles in the water consisting of finely divided solids, larger than molecules, but not visible by the naked eye; ranging in size from .001 to .150mm (1 to 150 microns). The US EPA has established an MCL for turbidity to be 0.5 to 1.0 NTU, because it interferes with disinfection of the water.
Typically turbidity can be reduced to 75 microns with a cyclone separator, then reduced down to 20 micron with standard backwashable filter, however flow rates of 5 gpm/ sq. ft. are recommended maximum. Turbidity can be reduced to 10 micron with a multimedia filter while providing flow rates of 15 gpm/sq. ft. Cartridge filters of various sizes are also available down into the submicron range. Ultrafiltration also reduces the turbidity levels of process water.